Gemology is the scientific study of gemstones, which often involves the study of mineralogical fundamentals such as formations, genesis, localities, physical properties and identification of gemstones. It includes the basic knowledge of structural, crystallographic, chemical and physical characteristics and properties of gems. It also involves the way in which gemstones are fashioned.
Special Gemology deals with categories and varieties of gemstones, synthetic stones, and imitations. Conventionally, organic substances such as amber, pearls, coral and non-minerals are also included in this subject of special gemology.
Practical Gemology refers to the application of the knowledge of characteristics and properties of gemstones in the identification or separation of synthetics and imitations. Diamond grading is included in practical gemology.